Animation tends to be more effective when complemented with other strategies, especially direct instruction. In a study, Lin & Dwyer found that static visual treatment is just as effective as varied animated treatment in learner achievement. When the static visual treatment is highly developed, it can be just as effective as animation. The main idea of certain material is easily recalled from animated node-link maps rather than static maps or even animated text. Huang explains, computer based instructional units are also effective in the cognitive psychomotor skill learning areas. Kidwai, Munyofu, Swain, Ausman, Lin, & Dwyer, determined that animation impacts factual and contextual learning but not higher order learning.
Higgins, N. & Hess, L. (1999). Using electronic books to promote vocabulary development, Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 31(4) ,425-430.
22 third-grade children randomly assigned to control (n=11) and experimental groups (n=11)
The purpose of the study was to determine whether mere animation or animation with supplemental instruction is more efficient in learning and retention of unfamiliar words. The used material was an electronic book of poetry for children.
The children with supplemental instructions in conjunction with animation scored significantly higher (M=5.00, SD=0.89) than the children who did not receive synonyms, definitions and questions in addtition to animation (M=2.91, SD=1.30).
Kidwai , K., Munyofu, M., Swain W. J., Ausman, B. D., Lin, H., & Dwyer, F. (2004). Effect of Visual Scaffolding and Animation on Students’ Performance on Measures of Higher Order Learning. Association for Educational Communications and Technology , Chicago , IL October 19-23, 2004 .
Approximately 90 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to three treatments (control, simple and complex). The participants were assessed on four dependent measures; Drawing, Identification, Terminology, and Comprehension after they received the respective instructional presentation.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the instructional effectiveness of two visual scaffolding strategies (simple and complex scaffolding) used to complement animated instruction.
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